TURTLES AS WONDERFUL AND BEAUTIFUL CREATURES BOTH IN LAND AND “SEAS AROUND US”:
HOW DO WE SAVE TURTLES FROM EXTINCTION IN 21st CENTURY?*
*This paper is dedicated in honor and memory of NC Ornithologist late David Lee retired from NC Museum of Natural Sciences (Died on July 20, 2014).
Robert Y. George Ph.D.
President, George Institute for Biodiversity and Sustainability and
Science Advisor, L Russ Bush Center for Faith and Culture,
Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary, Wake Forest, North Carolina
“Turtles have no worries, have no cares — yet has not the great world existed for them as much as for you” Henry David Thoreau, 1856.
The first person ever to express a genuine concern for conservation of nature and its inhabitants was Charles Darwin in the last paragraph of his book “Origin of Species” (Darwin, 1859). In the very last paragraph of his book, he concluded: “Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object of which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.” Higher animals, as Darwin implied, are the mammals (that the wooly mammoth that became extinct by vigorous hunting of early man), the birds (that include passenger pigeon), the whales (that include Atlantic right whales that are at the brink of extinction today) with dwindling of its numbers today and also the sea turtles that are getting shifted from threatened to ‘endangered species’ and then to ‘critically endangered species’ in the red list of species by International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN). George (2013) appealed loud and clear to conservation scientists: ” Let us not get concerned about how whales evolved but let us focus now on saving the whales from extinction.”
The modern-day Darwin, Edward O. Wilson, was also deeply concerned like Charles Darwin in 1859 about biodiversity conservation. Wilson (2006) appealed in his book “CREATION: An Appeal to Save Life on Earth” that conservation scientists must work with Baptist pastors and collaborate with dialogues not between evolution and creation but on the question of biodiversity conservation to save the beautiful and wonderful creatures that are now threatened to a path toward extinction. On March 7, 2014, Wilson appealed to me with a letter to recommend one to five places of peak biodiversity and let me reproduce Wilson’s letter below:
“Dear Bob, I have a request that I hope you will find enjoyable and hopefully concerns no more than ten minutes or so of your time. I’m sending the same request to a small select group of other authentic scientific naturalists. You may know (probably not) that I am well along on a book “The End of Anthropocene”, in which on behalf of all of us (i.e., authentic scientific naturalists), I describe the real world and biodiversity the way that naturalists have experienced it, and which refutes that described by various de-extinction enthusiasts, nature-is-dead defeatists, kareivans, and other ideological anthropocenists.
Biodiversity conservation should be led by those who know it best. And we need to ramp up the effort. Here’s the request. Name one to five of the best places in the world on the basis of richness, uniqueness, most in need of research and protection, in other words those you care about, and give me permission to quote you (or not), if you want to cite reasons for your choice. I’d like to get a list of up to a hundred in the book. For example, among my choices are (I might be swayed) Cuban forests and mogotes, New Caledonia, Altai, Indonesian shallow marine, Yasuni. It can be an entire country, or island, or place within either. I’ll be very grateful. Warmest, Ed.”
The occurrence of young turtle hatchings of loggerhead turtle was reported by Schwartz (1988) in a paper published in Turtle Newsletter. Meylan et al (2011) also discussed the migration of the green turtles and hawksbill turtles from Sargassum to coral reefs around the island of Bermuda. George (2012 a & b) wrote two long essays to emphasize the role of Sargasso Sea canopy as maternity wards for not only sea turtles but also both American and European eel species Anguilla rostrata and Anguilla anguilla. He appealed to the policy-makers to designate Sargasso Sea as National Marine Park within US EEZ and an international Marine Park outside the EEZ in the High Seas.
ATLANTIC SEA TURTLES IN CRISIS
IUCN, WWF, UNEP, World Conservation Union and Convention for Prevention of International Trade of Endangered Species have not yet found a solution to stop declining diversity and abundance of the following marine turtles off NC and the SE United States. Creation of a ‘Marine Park for Western Sargasso Sea’ may be the solution to the problem at the moment!! – Bob George, GIBS.
Atlantic Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas mydas
ATLANTIC SEA TURTLE Chelonia mydas mydas
The Green Turtle is the inhabitant of subtropical and tropical water in the world oceans. The Atlantic population is possibly genetically isolated, not sharing its DNA with other populations. These turtles are herbivorous. They are good swimmers with enlarged stout paddle-like flippers. The green fat below the carapace is how they got their name. They are found in marine Lagoons. This turtle matures in 8 years. It is listed as an endangered turtle by IUCN. In China people eat these turtles as delicacy. These turtles are often caught in fishing nets.
The turtles that are caught in gil nets are severely injured and they seldom recover even after released from the nets onboard the ship. The turtles in developing countries do not get any conservation status and these turtles are killed while shrimpers catch them as bycatch and virtually suffocate these creature and they invariably die.
2. Atlantic Hawksbill, Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata
This turtle is the only extant species of the genus Eretomochelys. The Atlantic subspecies is E. imbricata imbricata. The Indo-Pacific subspecies is E.imbricata bissa..
The body is flattened. This turtle has enormous flipper-like long arm. It swims long distances at ease. It has a sharp curving beak with a prominent “tomium” Depending on ambient temperature the carapace color changes. These turtle often inhabit coral reefs. The World Conservation Union has now labeled this turtle as critically endangered. Also, ‘Conservation of International Trade of Endangered Species’ outlawed the capture of Hawksbill turtles.
Swimming Hawksbill turtle BEAK
Hawksbill turtle off Cuban Coast (Herrera’s photo)
- Atlantic Loggerhead, Caretta caretta caratta
Loggerhead Turtle swimming over eef
This turtle is oceanic, often encountered in the Sargasso Sea. It grows as long as 3 feet, weighing as much as 300 lbs. to even 1000 lbs. Females come to shore to lay eggs in beaches where they were hatched as the salmons do. Their feeding habits suggest that they are omnivorous. IUCN has listed this turtle species as endangered because of heavy incidence of these turtles caught in fishing nets. They are also victims of eating or swallowing marine plastics that is now estimated to be about 24,000 toms in the “Seas around us.” Their migration is now investigated with sophisticated Geo-Solar and Geomagnetic tags monitored by Satellites.
Loggerhead Turtle resting
Turtles Nesting Sites in NC Beaches Newly Hatched loggerhead turtles to Sea
We often see baby turtles make their journey to sea when the sun rises on the east. However, these infant turtles get cheated by bright lights from hotels and other residential areas onshore with bright lights and move in the wrong direction to get killed crossing the road by moving vehicles in coastal roads.
- Atlantic Kemp Ridley, Lepidocelys kempi
These turtles are critically endangered and becoming rare. It differs from the other species belonging to the same genus s as L. olivacea. In size they are small measuring two feet and weighing 100 lbs. They live in warm water from Gulf of Mexico to New Jersey. Although they nest along beaches in Florida, these turtles tend to return to the
beach Rancho Nuevo in Mexico-Tamaulipas to lay eggs. They eat invertebrates such as crustaceans, mollusks and sea urchins. There was a huge mortality of these turtles in the BP Oil Spill in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico.
5 Atlantic Leatherback, Dermochelys coriacea coriacea
Leatherback sea turtles, also known as lue turtles, are the largest, as long as 7 to 9 feet, weighing as much as 1500 lbs. They are cosmopolitan in distribution. Its distribution in areas north of Arctic Circle indicates that they are cold adapted. They feed on jellyfish and soft bodied tunicates and cephalopods. Their life span is about 40 to 50 years. They migrate vast distances.
Huge Leatherback Turtle resting in the intertidal zone!
6. Diamondback Terrapin Melachemys terrapin.
Pencil drawing of terrapin turtle Geographic distribution of terrapin turtle
Besides marine turtles, we in North Carolina have a turtle in a brackish coastal swamps and this species belongs to the monotypic genus Melachemys. This species is found from Texas in the Gulf of Mexico to as far north as Cape Cod in Massachusetts. These diamondback turtles have on the top of their shells diamond-shaped patches. Females are usually larger as long as 7 to 9 inches and males on an average measure about 5.1 inch. Herpetologists have recognized seven subspecies with North Carolina harboring M. terrapin certrata. These turtles mate in May to June and eggs are laid in sand dunes in July. Females mate with multiple males and store sperms for years. These turtles feed on crab, shrimps, clams and periwinkles (gastropods).
Diamondback turtles also face threats from human exploitations and in Rhode Island it is considered as endangered species but in Massachusetts as a threatened species. Dr. Hal Avery of Earth Watch took action to protect these turtles. Nesting sites will become vulnerable in the future with Sea Level Rise (SLR). Nesting females are known to cross roads along the coast and often get crushed by vehicles. As I recall on July 29, 2011 I was in JFK airport and saw the warning made to say that 150 diamondback turtles were found on Runway # 4. Some coastal populations eat these turtles and make also turtle-soup. In the 19th century, in the Chesapeake Bay as much as 89,150 lbs of turtles were consumed as soups. University of Maryland proudly uses the name “Diamondback” as the name of the university newspaper and their athletic team is name as “Terps.”
A recent study by US Geological Survey (USGS) geneticist gave a big boost to diamondback turtles. Dr. Maggie Hunter reported in a paper in the journal “Conservation
Genetics” that “threats to long term survival of terrapin turtles occurs if they become
separated into isolated groups. Isolation can affect their overall survival several generations down the line.” She studies breeding patters of terrapin turtles using DNA from blood samples of nearly a thousand terrapin turtles. Despite the fact that there are seven subspecies she found only four distinct DNA-based subspecies. This implies that natural breaks in genes do not correspond to the ranges of these seven subspecies of Melachemys terrapin. The real benefit of this research finding is that turtles rescued from poachers can be returned to their original habitat.
TURTLES AS VICTIMS IN SHRIMP FISHERIES BYCATCH
Anadramous fish such as stripe bass or salmon live in the ocean and return to the estuaries or rovers where they once were born to spawn. Likewise, catadramous fish such as the American eels are born way out in the mid-ocean 9, i.e. the Sargasso Sea but they come to estuaries and rivers to grow in less saline waters or fresh waters where there is a greater abundance of food. On the contrary, marine turtles spend their life in the sea but come ashore to a sandy beach to lay eggs. The dangers of the nesting sites along the coast are far more vulnerable for human threats. A four-wheeler trucker crushes the turtle eggs while running aimlessly without any regard for the newly hatched baby turtles or the eggs buried in the beach. sand.
In the southeastern United States, shrimp fisheries play an important economic role with shrimpers from North Carolina to the Gulf of Mexico with shrimp boars trawl for shrimp year round. The white ship fisheries flourish more in the summer time since the species of white shrimp Liptopenaeus setiferus is adapted to 20 C (or 68 F). In the autumn- winter months both brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) fisheries and pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duodorum) fisheries are common. White shrimp species extend along the east as far north as New York coast but the pink shrimps are more common in the waters off Florida coast in the Gulf of Mexico. Shrimpers dominate in both Gulf of Mexico Fisheries Management Council and also in the South Atlantic Fisheries management Council (SAFMC) and are strongly opposed to the establishment of marine Protected Areas for conservation of marine biodiversity that tends to decline sharply in the recent decades. The three common shrimp species, commercially harvested in the southeast USA are shown below.
Brown Shrimp Pink Shrimp White Shrimp
Farfantepenaeus aztecus Farfantepenaeus duodorum Liptopenaeus setifrons
Over the years the annual catch of shrimps, particularly pink shrimp declined drastically as illustrated in the figure bellow. Nevertheless, shrimp trawling has imposed a severe threat to marine biodiversity and also to the density of sea turtles.
Peak pink shrimp fisheries to the tune of more than 15,000 tons occurred in the 1980.
Another tragedy comes from shrimpers catching vast number of turtles as bycatch and throwing away the wounded reptiles back in the sea to die and disintegrate. In the United States there was no law back in he 1970s to restrict shrimpers with any methods to avoid catching turtles in their nets. According Lee (2014), 12,000 turtles were caught over year as bycatch and thrown out, mostly as wounded turtles, nearly half-dead. In 1987 a miracle happened at the invention of TED (Turtle-Excluder Device) as an integral part at the cod end of the shrimp-nets (see illustration of TED given below).
The story behind the struggles to make shrimpers to use TED is worth-narrating. North Carolina lawmakers were willing to get law passed in 1987 to compel shrimpers to use TED but the federal govern approval was not forthcoming. NC government had to sue Uncle Sam! It took five years and only in 1992 use of TED by shrimpers across the nation became mandatory.
The federal government is now going through a struggle to make new laws to protect marine space wither by creating new national sanctuaries or expanding the existing national marine sanctuary off Cape Haterras to protect the old iron-clad ship ‘Monitor National Marine Sancturay’ that is just one square mile. New sanctuary proposals have been called in ther national register by NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration) but this procedure of establishing a new sanctuary can take as much as a decade with all the pros and cons fights in the US Congress.
TED (TURTLE EXCLUDER DEVICE)
See turtle escaping in the net equipped with TED (Bottom sketch)
Turtle swimming healthily and happily out of a TED
Bycatch showing turtle with other fishes Poor sea turtle entangled in net
From a shrimping net
Leatherback turtle caught in net Poor sea turtle caught in net
Poor Sea Turtle Entangled in Fish-Net (Photo courtesy of Conservationist David Lee
NORTH CAROLINA SEA TURTLE PROJECT
In 2012, 1000 loggerhead sea turtles used the beaches in North Carolina for nesting. The green turtles and leaback turtles also nested in NC beaches but the nests were few, not as in big numbers by loggerhead turtles. In may the loggerhead turtle come ashore on the beach, each mother turle lays approximatley 120 eggs in one clutch. The eggs are covered in sand and the nest site is camouflaged. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission takes efforts to monitor these nesting sites and with help of volunteers, is able to protect the nests, the emerging baby turtles and also the mother turtles from any kind of human exploitation..Each female sea turtle nests 4 to 7 times per season of the
year starting May. Female turtle can repeat this egg-laying rituals three years. Eggs once
laid, takes 60 days for incubation and the baby turtles hatch and march to the sea. In the remarkable The Karen Beasley Sea Turtle Rescue and Rehabilitation Center genuine effots are made over the year in Topsail Beach, North Carolina to help stranded turtles to recovery and reentry to the sea. George Institute for Biodiversity and Conservation (GIBS) is also educating the public in symposia and workshops to promote avoidance of tragedies in the commons such as beaches where 4-wheels pose a threat to nesting turtles.
Ms. Karen Beasley –Sea Turtle Doctor Her Patient
Volunteers at Beasley’s ‘Topsail Beach Rescue Center’ rescuing a sea turtle
The sea turtle rescue center here in North Carolina is really one of its kind and now has about 13,000 square foot facility to accommodate sick and wounded sea turtles. The center takes x-rays of sea turtles with fractured fins. This facilty recived about 1.5 Million dollars from private donors, thus far.
Nesting Loggerhead Sea Turtle in NC Beach
WHY NOT USE THE APPROACH OF DARWIN WHO BROUGHT TO LIGHT
THE GREAT GIANT TORTOISES IN GALAPAGOS
Giant Galapagos Tortoise Cheonodis nigra abinglonii – Charles Darwin Research Station
The young Charles Darwin, while going ashore from HMS Beagle, wrote in his diary the following statements in his notes when he first saw Galapagos tortoises:
“As I was walking along, I met two large tortoises, each of which must have been weighing 200 lbs, one was eating apiece of cactus and as I approached it stared at me and slowly stalked away and the other gave a deep hiss and drew in the head. These large reptiles, surrounded by black lava, the leafless shrubs and large cacti seemed to my fancy like some antidiluvian animals. The few dull-colored birds cared no more for me, than they did care for the giant tortoises.” Darwin’s sojourn in Galapagos (meaning tortoises in the Spanish language) made a lasting impact on the biological concept of variation and speciation Darwin also influenced in his final paragraph of his controversial book “The Origin of Species” the concept of conservation of all species.
Darwin, as I pointed out earlier, was conservation-concerned as he wrote in the last paragraph of his notorious book in 1859 “Origin of Species.” He appealed for protection of the beautiful species that evolved and are still evolving. But man was not cautious and his behavior is ore focused on exploitation and less concerned about conservation. This is why there is a real danger of species extinction increasing rapidly in the coming century and some scholars such as Prof. Ed Wilson of Harvard University are even predicting the
end of the epoch of ‘Anthropocene’ arriving early in matter of centuries. He has also
wisely advised southern Baptist Pastors to work with conservation scientist to care for protection biodiversity (Wilson, 2006).
ATLANTIC BLUEFIN TUNA AND GREEN TURTLES ARE FACING
TWO DIFFERENT FATES
Author Dr. Bob George at North Carolina Museum of Sciences’ Nature Research Center
In front of exhibits of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (above)
and Green Turtle Chelonia mydas. (below).
Threats To Green Turtle
The systematic harvest of eggs and adults on nesting beaches and juveniles and adults on feeding grounds over the years has taken a heavy toll on the species. With changing fishing patterns, incidental capture in fishing gear, especially gillnets, trawls, traps and pots, longlines and dredges is a serious threat, which prevents species’ recovery. In India, a large number of green turtles used to be
captured in the waters of the Gulf of Mannar and off the coast of Tamil Nadu until
the Wildlife Protection Act was enforced in 1972. Illegal take of turtles however still occurs. In some parts of the world, green turtles are also threatened by a disease known as (sea turtle) fibropapillomatosis, the symptoms of which are tumours that grow on all the soft tissue areas of a sea turtle, including the eyes and mouth and can also grow through the carapace and plastron. The mere fact that green turtles ate world-wide in distribution, this species stands beetr to escape from extinction if rules and regulation will prevent exploitation. Despite the fact that sea turtles are declared as endangered species, it is a sad fact that 42,000 sea turtles are killed legally in shrimp or fish-trawling activities. Unfortunately the use of TED (Turtle Excluder Device) to avoid killing sea turtle is confined to the United States and some advance nations but thus far TED is not used in developing nations such as Thailand, Bangaledesh or Argentina which export shrimps caught by shrimpers using TED-less nets. Imports of shrimps must be halted in the United States until these nations catch shrimps with nets equipped with TED.
THREATS TO ATLANTIC BLUEFIN TUNA
Overfishing continues despite repeated warnings of the current precipitous decline. In 2007, researchers from the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT)—the regulators of Atlantic bluefin fishing—recommended a global quota of 15,000 tonnes to maintain current stocks or 10,000 tonnes to allow the fisheries recovery. ICCAT then chose a quota of 36,000 tonnes, however surveys indicated that up to 60,000 tonnes was actually being taken (1/3 of the total remaining stocks) and the limit was reduced to 22,500 tonnes. Their scientists now say that 7500 tonnes is the sustainable limit. In November 2009 ICCAT set the 2010 quota at 13,500 tonnes and said that if stocks were not rebuilt by 2022 it would consider closing some areas.
In 2010, Greenpeace International added the northern bluefin tuna to its seafood red list. On 18 March 2010 the United Nations rejected a U.S.-backed effort to impose a total ban on Atlantic Bluefin tuna fishing and trading. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) vote was 68 to 20 with 30 European abstentions. The leading opponent, Japan, claimed that ICCAT was the proper regulatory body.[
In 2011, the USA’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) decided not to list the Atlantic bluefin tuna as an endangered species. It is still considered a “species of concern,” but NOAA officials claimed that the more stringent international fishing rules created in November 2010 would be enough for the Atlantic bluefin tuna to recover. NOAA agreed to reconsider the species endangered status in 2013. In the summer of 2011, the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society led a campaign against supposedly illegal Bluefin tuna fishing off the coast of Libya, which was under Muammar Gaddafi‘s regime at the time. The fishermen retaliated against Sea Shepherd’s intervention by throwing various, small metal pieces at the crew. Nobody was injured due to the other side’s actions during the conflict. In November 2011, food critic Eric Asimov of The New York Times took the top-ranked New York City restaurant Sushi Yasuda to task for serving bluefin tuna, which he reported was severely overfished and in dire straits, with its Atlantic population estimated to be down almost 90 percent since the 1970s. In November 2012, 48 countries meeting in Morocco for the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas voted to keep strict fishing limits, saying the species’ population is still fragile.
How can “Theoecology” help in halting the extinction of sea turtles?
The ‘TheoecolgyJournal’ (www.theoecolgyjournal.com) was founded in 2012 by scientist-believers and theologians under my leadership as ‘editor-in-chief’
with the purpose of developing dialogues between Baptist pastors and conservation scientists, taking the advice given by Harvard professor Ed Wilson in his book CREATION (Wilson, 2006). I also founded in 2001, at the dawn of the century, ‘The George Institute” under the name ‘George Institute for Biodiversity and Sustainability” GIBS (www.GIBSconservation.org) with the following mission statement: “Central to the purpose of GIBS is the promotion of Christian stewardship of all created order in the earth in the light of declining biodiversity, ongoing climate change, the lack of sustainable utilization of natural resources, as well as, to uphold such stewardship for the goal of glorifying the triune God, who is the Creator and Sustainer of the Earth.”
In recent years, faith-based approaches for ecological restoration received recognition by scientists and the ‘Ecological Society of America’ also endorsed the Christian initiatives to restored impaired watersheds, rivers and reservoirs in the United States. For the first time in 2014, North American Lake Management Society at the 22nd Annual Southeastern Lake and Watershed Management Conference in Asheville North Carolina on March 26 to 28, 2014 included a full session (6 A) for “Faith Based Interactions and Ethics to promote Falls Lake and Neuse River Basin Ecosystem Restoration. This session included four papers. George and Little (2014) appealed for avoiding the tragedies of commons by wise Christian stewardship. They pointed out that the phenomenon of destructive behavior, both environmentally and socially, has been addressed in a paper in Science by Prof. Garrett Hardin of the University of California in Santa Barbara (Hardin, 1968). In our society, government gives permission to use 4-wheeler vehicles on beaches such as the one in Outer Banks in North Carolina where Loggerhead turtles come ashore to lay eggs. We are not giving importance to sea-turtles but our decision-makers give value to human recreational activities to promote tourism and coastal economy. What is needed is the need for initiating
careful management strategies to ban 4-wheel vehicles in beaches where the turtles come ashore every May to nest.
For the Asheville conference, I accompanied Pastor Dwayne Millioni with whom I am collaborating for several years to bring about a series of round-table discussions at his church (Open-Door Baptist Church in Raleigh) to promote dialogue between ecologists and theologians to take ethics in management strategies (Milioni and Bible, 2014).
Author Dr. Robert Y. George in front of Pastor Dr. Dwayne Milioni at the Pulpit
The Chapel in Rev. Billy Graham Center in Bily Graham’s Chapel
The answer to the question how theoecological approach can halt extinction of the turtles or any thereatened and endangered species in our ecosystems in the 21st century comes from the accurate interpretation of what is written in Genesis Chapter 1 about the “Dominion Mandate’. It also embraces the ‘Environmental Virtue Ethics (EVS)’. Management efforts must be grounded in the nature of God, guided by moral norms revealed in the scripture and teleologically focused on
God’s glory. The whole concept revolves around the truth that all land and ocean and their natural resources indeed belongs to God and we are, whether citizens or government, must recognize that we are only prudent care-takers and not owners of natural resources.
Darwin, C. 1859. Origin of Species. John Murray Publisher.
George, R. Y. 2012 a. Protection of Biodiversity in the Sargasso Sea. Theoecology Journal. Vol I Issue 2 (October 2012): 1- 32
George, R. Y. 2012b. Western Sargasso Sea: Currents, Corals, Climate Change, Eeels and Birds. Theoecolgy Journal Vol I Issue 2 (October 2012: 32 – 64.
George, R. Y. 2013.Conversation with Creationist John D. Morris and Genesis Vs Science on how whales evolved. Theoeology Journal Vol 2 Issue 2: 1-29.
George, R. Y. and B. A. Little, 2014. Let us avoid tragedy of the commons in North Carolina by wise Chritian Stewardship. In: Lakes and Reservoirs: Today’s Investment is Torrow’s Reward. Abstracts book of 23rd Southeatsern Lakes and Watershed Management Conference, Ashville, North Carolina.
Hardin, G. 1968. The Tragedy of the Commons. Science 162: 1243 – 1248.
Lee, D. 2014. Pondering Poor Policy Planning, Problematic Protection and Public Perceptions Versus Practical Programs for Marine Turtles. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 49 (5) 1-3.
Meylan, P.A., A. B. Meylan and J. A. Gray, 2011. The ecology and migration of sea turtle. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 357 (70 pp).
Milioni, D. and S. Bible. 2014. Environmental Virtue Ethics. In. Lakes and Resrvoirs: Today’s Investment is Tomporrow’s Reward. Abstract book of 23rd Southeastsern Lakes and Watershed Management Conference, Asheville, North Carolina.
Schwartz, F.1988. Aggregation of young hatchings of loggerhead turtles in Sargassum. Marine Turtle Newsletter 42: 9 – 10.
Wilson, E 2006. Creation: An Appeal to save life on earth. Norton.Publsihing Company. NY.
Kemp Ridley Sea Turtle is now declared as the most endangered species.
It only nests in beaches along the Gulf of Mexico