Theoecology Journal
Charlie Darwin vs Dr. George


The Theoecologyjournal is open access, peer reviewed web-journal that seeks to bridge the gap between the sciences and theology by promoting dialogue and charitable interaction amongst researchers, students, and professors. Please visit The Journal’s Core Values to better understand the unique framework to which this journal ascribes. The Theoecologyjournal is copyrighted and may be used in digital and print format as long as proper methods of citation are utilized. Please see the letter on copyright and manuscripts for guidelines pertaining to the submission of papers. If you would like to submit an article please visit HERE. Additionally, you will want to review the Editorial White Paper before submitting an article.

Editorial Board

Dr. Robert George,
Theoecology Journal Director
Raleigh, NC

Dr. Dwayne Milioni,
Open Door Baptist Church
Raleigh, NC

Dr. Bruce Little,
Center for Faith and Culture,
Raleigh, NC

Dr. Craig Bartholomew,
Redeemer University,
Ontario, Canada

Mr. Michael Schut,
Office, Presiding Bishop
of Episcopal Church

Dr. Steven Bouma-Prediger,
Hope College,
Holland, Michigan

Mr. Tom Rowley,
Director, A Rocha USA,
Frederickburg, TX

Dr. Bruce Ashford,
Dean of College, SEBTS

Dr. Norman Wirzba,
Divinity School,
Duke University

Dr. Reggie Harrell,
Environmental Science,
University of Maryland

Dr. Rusty Pritchard,
“Flourish”, Atlanta, GA.

Dr. Dyron Daughrity,
Pepperdine University,
Malibu, CA


Caring for Creation Through Community Based Conservation Efforts by Thomas Rowley
In nearly every community big or small, urban or rural, red state or blue, Christians can be found serving as Jesus’ hands and feet in everything from addiction counseling, education and feeding to healthcare, housing and senior care. Loving our neighbors in these myriad ways has improved the lives of millions and at the same time brought the gospel to many who would never have set foot in a church. What if it weren’t so?

Holy Creatures Living Among Other Holy Creatures In A World That Is Holy by Steven Bouma-Prediger
In his essay “Christianity and the Survival of Creation” Kentucky farmer, essayist, and poet Wendell Berry argues that the indictment by anti-Christian conservationists that Christianity is culpable in the destruction of the natural world “is in many respects just.” He writes that “Christian organizations, to this day, remain largely indifferent to the rape and plunder of the world and its traditional cultures. It is hardly too much to say that most Christian organizations are as happily indifferent to the ecological, cultural, and religious implications of industrial economics as are most industrial organizations.”1 In the very next breath, however, Berry insists that “however just it may be, it [the indictment of Christianity by anti-Christian conservationists] does not come from an adequate understanding of the Bible and the cultural traditions that descend from the Bible.” Critics too often dismiss the Bible, usually without ever reading it, Berry observes. He thus concludes: “Our predicament now, I believe, requires us to learn to read and understand the Bible in light of the present fact of Creation.”

The Creation Stewardship Listening Project: Conservative Churches Provide Guidance on Local Creation Care in Yancey County, North Carolina by Herb Walters
The purpose of this article is to present a successful model program that enables conservative and moderate church leaders to help define, develop and act on a local faith based approach to stewardship of God’s creation. That model includes: 1. The Christian Stewardship Listening Project (CSLP) (2) Local organizations conducting Christian Stewardship of Creation (CSC) education and action programs after receiving guidance and integrating new church leadership from CSLP.

Dawn of Protestant Christianity in India: Hindu Awakenings by Baptist Missionary William Carey in North India and Anglican Missionary George Pope in South India by Robert George
In the final years of the 18th century in India, Mogul domination declined and Protestant Christianity entered the scene with the establishment of European missions primarily from England and some with support from king of Denmark. The Akbar Empire was more lenient for religious freedom than the previous Empires. This atmosphere was conducive for British Christian missionaries to promote what our resurrected Jesus told His disciples to embark on the goals of the “Great Commission.” This article focuses on two Christian heroes, Baptist missionary William Carey and Anglican missionary George Pope and their extraordinary work in North and South India. The Gospel reached a second but more successful grounding than the first one in the first century AD. When Christianity took its root in India. One of Christ’s apostles, Thomas, also known as doubting Thomas or Didymus (John 20: 28), touched the ribs of resurrected Jesus and journeyed in 52 AD to India from Egypt via Persia to spread the Gospel and establish the first Christian mission in the Malabar Coast, now known as the state of Kerala in the Republic of India.

Reflections on Cal DeWitt’s 2012 Book Song of A Scientist (published by Square Inch, Grand Rapids, Michigan): Alternate Melodies and Harmonies? by Calvin Beisner
Song of a Scientist is, as I said in the accompanying book review, a lovely book by a lovely man. Many parts make the heart sing. It is more a cycle of songs than a single one—each song having its own admirable melody and harmony. Cal’s reverence for the Creator, his love for the creation, his yearning to understand the books of Scripture and creation alike and to practice the good stewardship that results from good science and good ethics—all of these are clear. I wish I had gone on field trips with him, for I would certainly have learned much, and, as brothers in Christ, I’m sure we would have had good fellowship together.

Interpretations of the Biblical References on Wolf and the Ecological Role of the Wolf in the Yellowstone Park Ecosystem by Robert George
Undoubtedly, the ranchers in Montana do not want the wolves to invade their private properties and kill their horses, cows and sheep that they shepherd as guardians of their cattle. On August 16, 2012, I heard Mrs. Gretchen White, a local rancher in the town of Bozeman in Montana to narrate her story that revealed the agony she went through while confronting in her property an invading wolf killing her prize-breeding ram. She courageously shot the wolf and killed the beast. This is her livelihood, not a hobby. Her presentation was part of the “Stewardship Parables from Greater Yellowstone conference”. Wolves attack several sheep. In the wilderness, the wolf preys on the elks and the bisons but the wild wolf populations were killed forcefully to total eradication. The disappearance of the wild wolf led to rapid increase in bison and elk populations in the Yellowstone Park. Subsequently wolf was reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park.


Protection of Biodiversity in the Sargasso Sea (Part 1 of 2) by Robert George
Western Sargasso Sea: Current, Coral, Climate Change, Eels & Birds (Part 2 of 2) by Robert George
This essay is written with a single focus to define the unique ‘Sargasso Sea Canopy” as a vulnerable and sensitive ecosystem, in agreement with the recent appeal of the ‘Sargasso Sea Alliance’ (Lafolley et al, 2011). Several new unpublished information from the original R/V Eastward Expedition to the Sargasso Sea in 1966 constitutes highlights of this paper. Special emphasis is given to the Sargasso Sea as a breeding ground for both the European and American eels. New avenues are proposed to recover the eel fish stock. This essay also focuses on migratory fishes that use the Sargasso Seas in their journey to feeding grounds and nursery areas. The threats of illegal unregulated unreported (IUU) over fishing is also discussed to prevent further collapses. The author’s new discoveries of new taxa from the Bowditch Seamount in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda is discussed from evolutionary perspectives. The significance of Gulf Stream and the discovery of new deep-sea coral beds on the floor of northern Blake Plateau add reasons to protect this ecosystem. The importance of Sargasso Sea in climate change research and carbon sequestration is pointed out with the idea of developing long-term observation platforms in the Sargasso Sea. The need for protection of unique oceanic birds that come to offshore areas off North Carolina in the western Sargasso Sea is pointed out. Recommendations are made from ecological and theological or moral grounds to understand the ongoing climate-change processes in the western Sargasso Sea within the US Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). This essay also appeals for studying the biophysical ecology of the Sargasso Sea with partnership with all Sargasso Sea Alliance and decision-making US government agencies to bring about an efficient governance frame work, taking into the formula ethical and moral concerns to prevent a potential “tragedy of commons’ (Hardin, 1998).

St. Athanasius And The Redemption of the Created Order by Donnie McDaniel
St. Athanasius and the Redemption of the Created Order,” presents a defense of Athanasius against the charges brought against him by the ecotheologian Michael Northcott. This paper will proceed in the following fashion. In the first section of this paper, the importance of creation’s redemption among ecotheologians will be set in context. The second section will introduce the ecotheology of Michael S. Northcott. The section on Northcott’s theological enterprise will narrow down to his specific charges against Athanasius which cover the following three areas: one, Northcott finds within St. Athanasius’ work a capitulation to Hellenism. Two, Northcott views St. Athanasius as limiting the scope of redemption to the salvation of “rational” human beings. Three, Northcott presents Athanasius as contributing to the separation of creation and redemption within Christian theology. After the survey of Northcott’s charges against Athanasius, the third section of this paper will briefly examine the theology of the Bishop of Alexandria as preserved in Contra Gentes-De Incartione. This introduction to Athanasius’ thought will be followed by a defense of the Church Father against Northcott’s claims. The defense of St. Athanasius will center on the following issues: one, the relationship between Platonism and Christian theology within the work of St. Athanasius is best conceived as an antithetical contextualization than a capitulation to Greek philosophy. Two, it will become clear by examining Contra Gentes-De Incartione that there is no reduction in redemption’s scope within Athanasius’ thought. Also, it will be shown that part of the reason for this charge is a misunderstanding of how Athanasius uses the terms “rational” and “irrational.” Three, this defense of Athanasius will show that there is no separation between creation and redemption in his work. Even the Church Father’s intense focus on human redemption will be shown to have cosmic import. The final section of this paper will conclude with some reflections on using the work of St. Athanasius as a basis for ecotheology.

Book Reviews

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